The central nervous system and the peripheral organ functions are modulated by dopamine, which are located outside the CNS showing the interaction between the functional system and the nervous system. Study done in rats indicates the presence of dopamine in testes of mammalian spermatozoa implying the presence of D2R which signals sperm physiology.
Protein C inhibitor which acts as a suicide substrate has specificity for inhibition of homeostasis and fibrinolysis proteases. Recent research reports that the reproductive system proteases can be inhibited by PCI
Protease C inhibitor (PCI) was discovered as an activated protein C inhibitor and inhibits homeostasis and fibrinolysis proteases. PCI has the ability of blocking sperm-egg binding extracts while the latter experiments suggested the protection of the spermatozoa from prematurely degradation and reaction of acrosome by PCI.
The development of specific and selective inhibitors of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is essential for cell proliferation and differentiation. The use of PD098095 and U0126 in the study of MAPK/ERK kinase has been questioned prompting to the development of structure-based selective peptide inhibitors of ERK activation.
TLX antigens have been found in most peripheral blood cells, trophoblasts, seminal vesicle cells, and sperms and they seem to be in association with membrane cofactor protein. TLX/CD46/MCP antibodies recognize four overlapping specificities as studies show TLX and HLA allele’s independent segregation.
The ACRVI protein chromosomal vesicle is majorly expressed in the genital tracks of males. They are homologous to sp-10 localised in the sperm head which comprises expression of testis and prostate found in the testis germ cells exclusively
The occurrence of testis and protease expression usually occurs on the tract of male genitals. According to research data results, PATE proteins are involved in sperm-oolema in the process of penetration and fusion without binding sperm-zona.
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