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September 4, 2012

International Terrorism

Introduction
Terrorism refers to the organized exploitation of terror, and more so, as a way of intimidation. It involves acts which are aggressive and violent and they serve to inflict fear or terror. Terror is usually perpetrated for political, religious or ideological goals. Terrorists usually target the civilians hence causing fear of insecurity. Therefore, international terrorism refers to the organized exploitation of terror in a foreign nation by terrorists who are from other nation (s). However, there has been disagreement concerning what consists of terrorism.
This is because the concepts of political discourse lack clarity. However, if we go by the United States of America’s code, the act of terrorism refers to the activities that constitute the act of violence or any act that puts the life of human beings at risk by violating the criminal laws of the US or any other state; an act that is intended to cause fear or terror in a civilian population, influence the government’s policy via coercion or intimidation, or impacting on how the government conduct itself through kidnapping or assassination.
There are various types of terrorism as categorised by the National Advisory Committee on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals.

Types of terrorism
Terrorism has been categorized into six categories by the task force that was formed by the United States of America. This task force was formed back in 1975 and was mandated to advice the government on criminal justice standards and goals. This group categorized terrorism into civil disorder, political terrorism, non-political terrorism, Quasi-terrorism, limited political terrorism, and state or official terrorism or structural terrorism (National Advisory Committee on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals , 1976).
Civil disorder refers to a kind of collective violence that interferes with the security, peace, as well as the usual functioning of a society. Political terrorism refers to the criminal behaviour that causes violence with an intension of causing fear among the members of the community, or a substantial potion of the community for political purposes. On the other hand, non-political terrorism has no political purposes, but it is meant to cause fear for the purpose of personal interest. Quasi-terrorism uses the techniques and modalities of a genuine terrorism, but the consequences and reaction reflect those of genuine terrorism. State or official terrorism is also referred to as structural terrorism, and refers to the action of a nation to cause oppression and fear. It is the terrorism carried out by government in order to gain politically or as part of its foreign policy (National Advisory Committee on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals , 1976).

The treat of international terrorism
International terrorism has become a great threat to the peace, security, and the economic growth and development of the nations. Specifically, international terrorism has been recognized as a great threat to the security, both foreign and domestic, of the United States of America. It has been noted that the target and the timing of the terrorist can have a negative effect on the United States of America’s interest in areas like commerce, as well as its mission of fighting nuclear weapon proliferation in the Middle East. Several analysts have expressed their concerns about the Islamist groups that seek to cause economic and political tensions to nations such as Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Russian among others. They feel that these groups are becoming a great threat to the United States of America (Perl, 2010).

Fighting international terrorism
It is worth noting that terrorism is an expression of aggressiveness and extremism that are based on the terrorist’s hope that the victim, or the weaker side, will surrender and give in to their pressure. It is quite difficult to end terrorism on a negotiating table mainly because their motive is to make the other side to surrender. However, negotiations can succeed in fighting terrorism only after convincing their leader that causing terror will not bear any fruits. If terrorism involves the use of sophisticated weapons, negotiations may precede their usage, but in case of terror, negotiations can only proceed when terror stops. International terrorists not only affect the victims, they also frustrate any effort to negotiate (Netanyahu, 1981).
Therefore, to fight international terrorism, or even domestic terrorism, there are some basic rules that can be applied. These are:-
There should be no surrendering to international terrorists
An elaborate intelligence system apparatus, well trained people, and a properly organized early warning system must be put into place. This will help a great deal in preventing surprise and indiscriminate attack.
Terrorism must be fought both in the operation and psychological field.
Fighting terrorism must be internationally coordinated because international terrorism has worldwide network.
If a country is to succeed in fighting international terrorism, it must be proactive in stopping terrorism when it commences, even if it will mean going beyond the national borders. The affected country must develop tools that are required to fight international terrorism. This should be extended to countering the trafficking of drugs and human beings, combating corruption and money laundering (Perl, 2010).
These vices increase the likelihood of terrorism in a country. For instance, high level of corruption increases the possibility of international terrorists to stage ground for their criminal activities. Additionally, the illegal business provides the much needed money to facilitate criminal activities (Netanyahu, 1981).<…>

Conclusions
International terrorism is a major threat to the security, peace and economic prosperity of the nations involved. This is because it involves the destruction, killing, and influencing the government policies. Efforts have been made in form of treaties by various nations. However, there is still much that needs to be done to combat international terrorism once and for all.

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