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February 5, 2014

Japanese Emigration

Internationals migration continues to gain momentum in the contemporary world thanks to factors of globalization together with the changing economic, demographic and social structures. This phenomenon has the characteristic of shift from the initial movement to developed world to emigration from developed countries to the third world nations. The increasing levels of emigration to Asian nations like Japan, begun in the 1980s and continue to gain momentum. According to Ono (n.d), many emigrants from Japan consider the shift to other nations a valuable investment. However, focus on the benefit of migration and versus the cost of the process comes into mind. This factor not only determines the migration decision but also influences the patterns of return among emigrants. The present day society possesses diverse patterns when it comes to migration with all nations; Japan included feeling the effects of these occurrences. Like the case of other groups of migrants, Japanese migration emanates from diverse factors. This is irrespective of the different experience that these nations together with the population may have. Some of these factors include the shift movements from areas with limited capital reserves, diminishing job generation and abundant supply of labor and the shift to regions that are less intensive in land and high capital intensive. The search for education and job opportunities also govern this form of movement among the Japanese populace (Douglass & Roberts, 2003).
The widespread emigration in form Japan coupled with other elements continues to trigger substantial concern over the ever-reducing population in the nation (OECD, 2008). According to research results, the coming decades will probably see the population of Japan decline by a whopping one million individuals on a yearly basis. More than a third of the population would be over the age of 65 years as the nation’s health labor and welfare sector reports. This change in the demographic constitution of Japan results from the low rate of birth with the increasing shift of the population to other nations not providing any hoe for the country. Moreover, this demographic change exposes the nation to a range of other challenges with that of emigration not expected to end any time soon. Some of the adverse affect that the country’s shrinking population has already emerges in the slowing per capita growth and a low annual growth rate. This may in turn increase the desire for emigration among the population , continue affecting the economy and lead to unending viscous cycle of population decline and economic issues and perennial out migration.
Japanese emigration takes two forms and institutes both the domestic and international movement. The domestic migration within the nation comprises of the movement of individuals and families from the rural Japanese regions to the metropolitan areas. Rural laborers move to the city urban areas in search for employment due to the considerably high capital-intensive nature of the urban regions of the country. International migration involve the shift to countries like the United States, Australia, Europe, the Latin America, etc. the Japanese emigrants, according to Douglass and Roberts (2003), evenly splits between family based immigrants, labor immigrants and ancestry based immigrants. A substantial proportion of these emigrations involve alterations in status among international students who stay on following the conclusion of their studies. As Massey (2006), illustrates, Japanese who chose to emigrate from the nation temporarily, exceed those who chose to reside in the nation permanently in terms of proportion. Another major category among temporary migrants includes trainees and students.
Emigrants who return to Japan institute different groups of individuals and for a wide range of reasons. Some do so voluntary while other return because circumstances or authorities coerce them (Massey 2006). Temporary immigrants and some students chose to leave the nation following the expiry of their visa while other leave following deportation after the government discovers the roles they lay in the violation of immigration rules. In addition, another group leaves before the expiry of their terms citing discontent and unfavorable conditions and circumstances in their destination nations. The cost of living away from home sometimes becomes too expensive for Japanese emigrants. Japanese students who emigrate to study in the United States experience such a condition (Ono, n.d). This make going back to their countries most enticing as the process of emigration that aimed to better their lives becomes a costly affair.
Moreover, the pattern of Japanese American student migration following their graduation is increasing involves going back home. The search for employment back in Japan is a frequent trigger for return of Japanese students from the United States. The cases of Japanese Brazilians returning home also continues to gain momentum. According to Douglass and Roberts (2003), the general Japanese Brazilian populace is waning, aside from the diminishing rates of birth and the increasing proportion of the aging population, this groups return immigration to Japan coupled with the frequent cases of intermarriage with other groups and erosions of ethnic identity is affecting their population in Brazil. The main trigger of this massive return to Japan institutes prejudice and coerced integration. The poor employment condition due to prejudice led to the Japanese Americans being considered as deliverers of cheap labor in Brazil. Because of such factors, emigration to Brazil becomes socially expensive thus triggering their return.

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