The ultimate goal of the installation of a Fiber-Wireless (Fi-Wi) network is the possibility of the allowance of a convergence network of optical and wireless technologies within a single infrastructure so as to take advantage of the complimentary possibilities that each has and thus allowing for the improved bandwidth for both the mobile and fixed users. It is the purpose of this project to survey the possible applications of Fi-Wi network architectures, with particular focus on those that are based on Radio and Fiber integration. The project proposes to distinguish between the application of Fi-Wi and ROF architectures, with the differences being hinged on the three level network architectures of various optical and wireless devices together with classifying them on the basis of the technology that they use in communication and sending signals. Simulation of this application is the network architectures is achieved through the use of MATLAB, with results showing that there is a slight degradation of the strength and performance of a Fi-Wi signal with increasing distance.
The technological evolutions that have been witnessed within the past few decades have given rise to an increasing demand for applications and services that the traditional copper-based networks cannot be able to sufficiently handle. The use of High Definition IPTV, Video-On-Demand, as well as heavy interactive user systems have demanded that the data rates of access be increased to more than 10Mbps for every user. In this regards, many providers have opted to install alternative mediums of access and sending data, together with network infrastructures that have the capability of handling such large volumes of data. Optical fiber technology has thus been the primary option that has been adopted by most providers to increase the speed of access as it has the capability of supporting data rates of up to Gbps.
On the other hand, apart from the installation of fixed optical networks, the use of wireless networks has received increasingly positive reviews, attracting a great deal of attention because of the possibility of mobility within the network, low maintenance, and comparatively reduced installation cost. With these reasons, wireless-based LANs have increasingly dominated corporate networks, with cellular networks experiencing improved growth (in relation to the increased use of smartphones).
Optical networks implemented through the use of fiber cables have greatly increased the bandwidth and access capabilities of local and wide area networks though are associated with high costs of implementation. Wireless networks, on the other hand, are easy to implement, at reduced costs, though are plagued with the ubiquity of reduced access speed and are error prone depending on the range of access. This thus presents the idea of connecting the two network access technologies allowing the consideration of the complimentary advantages of each and limiting the disadvantages so as to increase the total throughput. This has thus led to the creation of the FiWi network which incorporates optical and wireless technologies within one single integrated infrastructure that has the capability of supporting incoming outgoing bandwidths that cannot be handled by other traditional techniques.
Two approaches have been proposed for the implementation f this technology: Radio-Over-Fiber (otherwise referred to by the acronym ROF) and Radio-and-Fiber (R&F). in an RoF system, radio frequency signals are sent and modulated within an optical channel, which are thence retransmitted to the users through the air (as shown in the figure below).
The technology is based on the the centralization of an emitting signal source, with the complexity of the network being moved to a central position within the network, thereby allowing the development of an RAU with a limited number of network components. Within this network, resource allocation is done by the centralised server component with handover and operational maintenace being handled by both the terminal device as well as the server. This reduces the overal power that is consumed within the network, a critical factor of consideration for the development of wireless standalone networks.
Greening the Fi-Wi Network
This section discusses the proposal for greening the FiWi network, together with the proposed algorithm to achieve this through the reduction of the amount of energy that is consumed by the network. The proposed network consists of the incorporation of an optical network back-haul to the entry of the network connected with network outers placed at strategic positions within the proposed region of influence. The wireless routers are tagged on to the network gateway which is thence connected, through the use of optical fiber cables, to the Optical Network Units (ONUs). In this proposal, we envision the installation of the Fi-Wi network within a campus setting, with the fixed router, gateway, and ONUs placed within the central position within the institution and wireless access points spread throughout the residential, administrative and academic regions of the institution to allow access to the network.
The central office within the institution is proposed to be connected through the use of two Optical Line Terminals (OLTs). 96 wireless access points will be deployed throughout the institution, with 33 of these nodes being placed within the academic and administrative regions and the rest in the student’s residential zones. 9 Optical Network Units will be placed within the central office of the institution, 5 of these being used for the residential zone and 4 in the administrative and academic zones of the institution. 18 IEEE 802.11 b/g/n gateway routers will be used in this network, with transmission capabilities that can be able to handle bandwidth in the range of the Gbps.
Through the use of the provisions of the basic IP network, a variety of options can be made available in regards to the high speed bandwidth provision and power consumption of the nodes connected to the network. This thus allows us to make conclusions on the number of access pints that are required at various points within the network, and the proposed network energy consumption that will have to cater for. The power access for each user within the institution can be calculated using the formula:<…>
Findings and Conclusions
The project proposes a innovative algorthm for the reduction of the amount of energy that is consumed by terminal nodes withoin a network, through the proposition of the creation of a Green Radio-over-Fiber FiWi network with imrpoved performance. It proposes the conservation of energy while imrpoving on performance of the network within the entire FiWi, and not just the end terminals.
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