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January 21, 2013

6 Rooms Of Culture

The economic culture of Russia is which is a country holding a land mass is 6.6 million square miles which is 1.8 times bigger than that of the United States bends towards a collective communism. Although the United States records a higher GDP under the capitalism economic culture, Russians support a collectivistic economic culture of mutual support that have helped the nation achieve higher growth rate, industrial and agriculture investment percentage than the United States. The U.S. practice an individual private enterprise economic culture of free trade or capitalism, which advocate for least government engagement in trade and industrial investment except enacting laws to harmonize trade and commerce. United States approves of individualism culture that rewards development of private enterprise unlike the Russian communism culture that is protectionist in nature: it protects the Russian industrial and agriculture investment from global competition. Unlike the United States where investment of private enterprise is protected by a code of ethics, Russian investment in private sector is interfered with by government, mafia and local factors that are approved by government to protect internal economy and support regional institutions of development. In 1993, Russians adopted socialistic communism once again after cancelling privatization and capitalism business practices introduced a few decades earlier. Therefore, the main difference between U.S. economic culture and Russia is that Americans approve of capitalism while Russian advocate for communism.Political
Both Russia and the United States have a federal system of government which bends towards the model of democratic political representation whereby American and Russian citizens as voters elect their respective political leaders and their president. Contrastingly, the Russian political management model copies from the aristocratic model in which the president can interfere with political freedom in order to sustain economic development to enhance GDP growth and distribute resources equitably. Executive power in Russia is under direct control of the President, who selects a prime minister who must be approved by State Duma (McFaul & Stoner-Weiss, 2008). Russia has a bicameral Federal Assembly comprising the Federal Council, which consists of appointed professional individuals and the State Duma or the lower house comprised of elected representatives. Every regional government is supposed to remain autonomous. However, Putin’s action of appointing efficient and effective managers as governors undermines the federal government autonomy. Voters from all regions in Russia elect their president to a six-year term following a change of constitution in 2008 that replaced the former four year presidential cycle. The Russian President reduced political control from regional governments by establishing seven superregional districts governed by former generals and KGB officers to maintain the influence of the federal government based in the Moscow Kreml (McFaul & Stoner-Weiss, 2008). The seven governors practice bureaucratic leadership in controlling federal assets providing jurisdiction checks on the regional leaders, who are elected by the Russian Voters.
Contrastingly, the United States’ political model, which comprises a federal government and a states government that are similar to federal and regional Russian governments, holds a strict code of conduct which does not allow the president to interfere with individual state affairs as enshrined in the states respective constitutions. The U.S. political hierarchy is divided into the Senate comprised of elected senators from the 50 states and the House of Representatives, which consists of individual state elected members.

The origin of Soviet Union rejected laws as basis of arbitration since laws had a bourgeois origin and Soviets distrusted courts and judges unlike Americans who believe in court fairness. Political interference within legal culture of Russia is highly influenced by the use of prosecutor culture. The government controls the prosecution process thus undermining the fairness of legal procedures. Consequently, most Russians prefer using oral arrangements to settle disputes or some reject reporting or claiming case to avoid the legal procedure (Lewinbuk, 2008).
Both the United States and the modern Russian legal culture are characterized by legal structures that are defined by laws, rules and norms that govern procedures of arbitration and selection of judges. The United States’ Constitution is the basic document that supports a free and fair judiciary culture to arbitrate the public and private sectors (FJC, 2012). Both the United States and Russia have Supreme Court institutions. Unlike the American who have a regard for law and litigation processes, Russians hate legal procedures and would rather settle matters orally and out of court.
Democratic culture is accommodated in United States unlike Russia in that besides the Chief Justice bureaucratic hierarchy associated with Federal legal customs, the individual states who have their independent courts use democratic means to appoint their arbiters. The presidency appoints the U.S. Supreme Court, circuit, and district court judges, who must be approved by the U.S. Senate as a democratic culture. Legal matters and cases are handled fairly since judges are protected by a tenure, which can only elapse by being impeached by the House of Representatives and a successful trial by the Senate. Judges in State courts are nominated by a commission system in which legal officers, lawyers, legislators, citizens, and judges nominate and await appointment by state governor or the nominees’ campaign for vacant posts and are elected by popular vote (FJC, 2012).
Russian legal culture is a bureaucratic system organized by the 1993 Constitution in which the Russian Court system is divided into three distinct institutions: The Constitution Court of the Russia Federation, Courts of General Jurisdiction and the Arbitrazh or Commercial Courts (Svendsen & Bunik, 2010). The general governing body of courts is the Office of the Procurator General in charge of state prosecution in the Russian court system. The Constitutional Court of Russia is charged with constitutional review processes that help courts and subjects comply with the Federal law, the Duma acts, the normative acts of the president and other regional laws. On the other hand, the Court of General Jurisdiction handles civil, criminal, and administrative cases under the watch of the Supreme Court that coordinates and runs all courts. Economic cases and appeals are handled in the Arbitrazh or commercial courts that use both the Russian and a discreet version of international law when handling international commercial cases.
Bureaucratic culture is used when selecting judges from qualified and well educated Russians who have to pass the judicial examination before becoming judges. The Qualifying Collegium of Judges examines every applicant and gives recommendation before a judge is hired (Svendsen & Bunik, 2010).<…>

The level of Altruism in Russia is very different from the United States’ model of providing assistance without requesting payment in turn. However, the United States individualism culture affects the level of altruism in that people are more concern to benefit at a personal level than at the collective level associated with Russians. The U.S. altruism philosophy borders assistance based on the proverb by Martin Luther King Jr, “Every man must decide whether he will walk in the light of creative altruism or in the darkness of destructive selfishness.” Russia, on the other hand, deals with its political nations from a discreet stance that remains veiled and unknown to general public such that their main altruism proverb deals with caution; “Trust, but verify”. The level of altruism culture in public life is higher in Russia where individual can give up political freedom for the sake of collective benefits. The United States displayed international altruism by enacted the Foreign Assistance Act of 1948 and later the Marshall Plan which aided foreign nations in Europe and Middle East to attain democracy and infrastructure development. The level of cooperation within Russian farmers and investors is quite high due of collective attitude compared to American altruism, which believes in self-reliance. Solidarity is advocated for in Russia between organization and people through the national Alliance of Russian Solidarists, which believes in setting social responsibility between different groups of people (Dmitry & Evseeva, 2009).

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