It is often said that Africa’s, Asia’s, and European History would not be complete without the mention of colonization. The term colonization is used to refer to a situation whereby one country dominates over another. In History, colonization began with the European countries, in the 15th and 16 the century, when they began showing interest in Africa, America, and Asia through exploration. However colonization took deep roots in the 19th Century with most European countries dominating in the African and Asian continents, this was as a result of industrial revolution that energized European countries to go out and look for raw material, and markets for the industrial products. As a result, European countries competed in all possible ways in an effort to acquire more colonies than the other in Asia and Africa, where land was vast, and natural resources and minerals were readily available. It is as a result of this competition and colonial expansion that we have terms such as “The scramble for Africa”.Q1. Referring to the maps, which European countries colonized the most countries in Asia and Africa? Which colonized the fewest? What do you think is one reason for this difference?
Britain and France were the two European countries that dominated a majority of the African and Asian countries, whereas others such as Belgium and Spain had a few. They were able to acquire more colonies due to the fact that they were more powerful in terms of resources and military power as compared to Belgium and Spain. Besides that, a country like Britain had control of the main sea routes, and was also colonizing America; therefore this was an added advantage in terms of control and colonial experience.
Q2. What was the relationship between the British and native people in India in the nineteenth century? (You can refer to the photograph in Step 3)
The British people who settled in India to dominate the lands and the people, not only did they grab the natives land but also treated the native people as inferior. The British people treated them with disrespect and oppression, overworked them and made them do tasks that were humiliating. They considered native people uncivilized, and possessing a low IQ. As illustrated in the photograph, where a native Indian is messaging the legs of a British man and another fanning him, the colonialists would subject the Indians to manipulative tasks. The natives were afraid of them and would therefore submit to whatever they were asked to do.
Q3. Why was tea so important for the British Empire? (Referring to Standage)
The discovery of the in the Indian colonies, became a new source of economic power and monopoly for Britain. The British colony opened the British East India Company, which was able to overpower China, who was previously the sole distributor of tea. The company soon rose to become monopoly, owing to the fact that British had a large market for tea, especially in her American colonies. British gained profits from tea, and it enabled them gain political power. The tea company enabled Britain to expand its empire in Asia. It’s the same company that enabled Britain to capture Java from Holland, acquire Singapore, and power to defeat Burma. Tea was therefore the backbone of the British Empire.
Q4. What is the relationship between Lipton Tea and Unilever? What do you think about Unilever’s marketing of tea?
Lipton tea was a brand developed by Thomas Lipton, a renowned business man in the 1870’s. The Lipton tea business was then acquired by the Unilever Global from Allied Suppliers of Lipton tea, and they took all the Lipton tea ventures across the globe starting with those in the US. Unlike Thomas, who grew his own tea leaves to produce the packaged tea, Unilever sought to sell Lipton tea that is a mixture of the best tea types in grown in different parts of the world such as India, Kenya, and Tanzania. Unilever have diversified the brand to include Lipton Iced tea, which was heavily marketed in the US, to eliminate the perception that iced tea is tasteless; their marketing strategy is a success. Unilever have also marketed the Lipton brands by constantly citing the importance of tea and thianine. The all time Lipton brand has been the Lipton yellow label, which is a blend of various teas found in the World. Other market brands are Lipton pyramid Tea, and Lipton milk tea that is market in East Asia. Unilever have done a great job as far as marketing is concerned, in creation of a Strong brand name for Lipton.
Q5. What event triggered World War I?
The main cause of the World War I, in 1914, was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Sophie, his wife, who were from Australia. Archduke was assassinated in Serbia, while on a visit with his wife, the assassinator, Gavrilo Princip, was a Serbian nationalist, and a member of Black Hand. At the time, Serbia was under the rule of Austro-Hungary Dynasty, and therefore this was a nationalist revenge. However, upon assassination, Austria Hungary declared war on Serbia to avenge for the assassination. Serbia, being a weak nation, called upon its allies to help in the war. Consequently Austria-Hungary followed suit by calling for allies to fight beside her, and this is how the war, which started as a simple conflict, ended up being international, having two fighting parties; The Allies and the Central Powers.
Q8. How did the Great Depression become “globalized”?
After the WWI, the US had maintained very close economic bonds, and was engaged in trading activities with the Allies (Britain, Russia, and France), which even bough stock in the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). The great depression, which started in the US in 1929, caused mainly by the Stock Market Crash and the collapse of the Banking Industry, affected other nations as well. This is due to the close trading ties between the US and Allies, and hence a collapse in the US economy would affect the economy of the other partners. For instance the great depression made the total output of US to decline significantly, and therefore she could not export or import as much as she was doing from and to other countries, therefore affecting their economy negatively as well. Keep in mind that the depression occurred at a time when the US was considered a global super power, and economic prosperity was hovering in America thus making other nations invest heavily her. This period was in fact called the “Roaring Twenties”, and therefore collapse of economy was a heavy blow on the other countries that had invested there especially in stock. The depression also led to countries imposing high tariffs on each other as part of a protective measure, and this deteriorated the global economy. These among many other factors made the Great Depression a Global Crisis.
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