1. The Enlightenment changed ideas about government, society, and religion. What were the old ideas (starting with the divine right of kings) and the new ideas (starting with liberty and popular sovereignty)?
The French form of revolution was found to differ from the overall American Revolution. The US happened to become the world super power within the end of the nineteenth century. As a result of this form of empowering, there were so many forms of transformations that happened within the sectors of religion, society as well as within the system of governance. There was intense preservation of the various elements which included civil equality, religious forms of freedom, secular law code as well as justice through promotion on the basis of merit. Reconciliation with the Roman Catholic Church was also realized during this period and this also led to the process of suppression of all democratic elements within the military sectors of dictatorship. The Napoleon was seen to keep emphasis on revolution by way of attracting the necessary numbers of supporters. By then, there was some form of national resistance which came from Russia and the surrounding territories. The divine right of kings was one of the revolutions off the time, and included the political as well as religious forms of doctrines of the entire political and the royal legitimacy. This asserted the fact that any monarchy was subject to no single form of authority, and thereby delivering the full set of rights towards ruling directly from the will of the almighty. This saw the evolution of the remote origins of the different theories within the fields of religion, as well as development of several sets of political formulations. It also foresaw the development of the newly devised emperors.The popular form of sovereignty is yet another mark of revolution that happened to occur during this period. It was principle which claimed that the entire authority of the government and its arms is sustained and created through the overall consent of its people. The people were considered to be the source of political power. This was closely associated to the social and also the republicanism consent.
2. How did government and society change in America after the American Revolution?
There were various echoes of revolution that were noted to have been accompanied within the different sets of societies within the American land after the process of revolution was realized. The core values of the American Revolution continued to reverberate. In these sectors that had been initially dominated by the conservative governments, some smaller sets of revolutions later erupted. This brought power closer to the individuals and also expressed the idea of republicanism. There was also greater social form of equality and distribution of resources that was being enhanced through the minor types of emperors that had been developed. The society also benefitted from the national liberation that was retrieved from the foreign rules. There was also the realization of the essence of public voting. The society also enjoyed the introduction of constitutional regime, where the people felt that their rights were recognized and the sense of freedom of rights had been observed and promoted.
It was noted that after the American Revolution, the US became fully united through the different articles of federation. This implies that the sense of unity was realized amongst the different sets of societies of the time. The federalists were proposing ratification of the constitution. The bill of rights was also ratified at that time. The society enjoyed the breaking of the corrupt and evil government, even though they also happened to revert to some centralized types of government arms, which were almost similar to those that were being observed by the British territories.
It was however noted that the larger uneducated mass did not experience a lot of change as compared to those sets of societies which were composed of educated masses of people. The groups of people within the society where people experienced massive forms of change include slaves, women, as well as loyalists. The society enjoyed more levels of freedom, while the slaves were also set free. The loyalists also left the American land, resulting into freedom of the formerly enslaved people. It is notable that the Americans did not realize massive political changes, but there were considerable levels of social changes. The central government could not realize centralized type of power, because the people within the society also had a voice.
3. How was the French Revolution influenced by the American Revolution? How was it different?
The French revolution differed from the American Revolution in that the American Revolution had expressions of tension of the colonial relationship with some distinct imperial form of power. The French revolution instead was driven by some sharp conflicts especially within the French society. The French revolution is believed to have laid the necessary forms of groundwork for all other ideologies, including those that led to the American Revolution.
The North Americans developed some significant interest in the French revolution. The declaration of France on the rights of mankind seemed to borrow from almost all the states that were almost experiencing revolution. The Americans borrowed a majority of legislative rights from the French rights. Even though the overall French revolution took some different paths form the American type, the two were found to borrow a lot from each other.
The French and the American forms of revolution were fully focused around the aspect of liberty as well as equity. Both countries were found to make an effort to gain some freedom. However, the tactics to achieve the same were found to be somehow different. The American Revolution was trying to gain some form of freedom from the taxes and rules put upon the especially by the Great Britain. Whereas the French wanted to abolish the entire monarchy and then create the whole new process of creating some better government which people could realize some more level of freedom.
4. How did the Haitian Rebellion mean different things to different people?
When the dust had finally settled within the early sets of tears in the nineteenth century, some remarkable things and the unprecedented had already accompanied the process of revolution. The Haitian revolution was a symbolic form of a break with the European territory. It also represented some form of connection with some of the deceased sets of native inhabitants within the former land. There was formal declaration of independence of the territory, resulting to a declaration of the end of the avenging process. There was a lot of criticism towards the emerging forms of racism and there were also other declarations that included equality despite the color, trace, or even class.
Economically, there was significant form of revolution of the overall plantation system which was also oriented towards the already existing plantation system. The whites continued to flee as they were killed continuously. A much smaller export center was later established to aid the people within the different plantations.<…>
9. How did capitalism contribute to the divide between “capital and labor”?
During capitalism, the economic and political systems of the time led to the process of owning economic resources under the entire industry. During this period, the system made emphasis on competition for any particular sets of resources which were available. This was considered to be one of the m means of increasing the level of wealth as well as developing the necessary personal success. As a result of enhancing the two processes, this eventually led to the division of labor and capital. This was believed to translate into equivalent success in any business activity.
10. How did the Mexican Revolution transform the country?
The revolution came up with some major forms of changes across the Mexican territory. The entire old political elite became replaced through the newly introduced set of elite. The process of revolution led to the trend of political centralization. This realized concentration of power within the national government. There was also a reduction in the reduction of the power and roles of the military officials across Mexico. There was also the launching of the social and labor reforms. All categories of workers, and especially the farmers were given the voice within all the public affairs.
11. Explain briefly the Opium Wars and the Boxer Rebellion.
The boxer rebellion was one of the anti-foreign forms of nationalist movements which were promoted by the righteous society within China. The uprising which led to this form of rebellion took place against a predefined form of a background with some severe drought as well as economic disruption in response to the growth of the foreign influential spheres. Several concerns grew with missionaries realizing some sponsorship for all the extraterritorial status. The opium war was also identified as the Anglo-Chinese war. It divided into the first as well as the second opium. During this war in two phases, there was a climax of several disputes which were concerned about the issue of trade as well as various diplomatic relationships across china.
12. Why did Japan rise to a greater power than the Ottomans?
The ottoman emperor managed to reach the expansion limit within the late seventeenth century. This is considered to be later than when the Japanese had managed to achieve the same. As a result, the Japanese became empowered way before the Ottomans. As a result of the same, the Ottoman realm happened to become extremely vulnerable to the more powerful neighbors.
13. Name one thing you found of interest in what the textbook calls “A second wave of European conquests.”
The most interesting issue in the book “A second wave of the European conquest” is on the aspect of rebellion and cooperation. After violence was found to be a prominent feature during the colonial life, various groups cooperated with their colonial activities. Through this cooperation, a majority of them secured jobs. This appears to be a promotion of the aspect of self motive.
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