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May 13, 2013

Psychology of Religion 400 Level Course

Religion is considered a moral dilemma since it is based on the psychological standpoint taken by a character. Considerations of what is right or wrong based on both society and religion is based on three levels of morality as categorized by Kohlerg. Association, practicing different rituals and authorities as part of religion revolves from the idea that religion and society are intertwined. Considerations of what society expects, and what it regards as religious or moral follows the thoughts and adherence to various ideologies that are encompassed in society while also considering the sinful messiah complexities. Considerations of religion and moral obligation stems from the benefits that are associated with the perspectives taken by individuals and thus society and religion.

The preconception morality phase in reasoning is an ideology based on personal gain and self-interest (Pinker, 2004). The phase incorporates stages of punishment avoidance and obedience and exchange of favors, which are the primary and second stages correspondingly. The first stage revolves around the idea of pursuing ideals for personal gain and avoiding being punished by society for being in the wrong. The idea of a sinful messiah has been documented in religion, from society’s point of view, as having been sinful in associating with prostitutes and even pardoning them for their mistakes, which was against society. The second stage of the first level of moral reasoning introduces favors, which arises from the realization that everyone needs favors. This is a concept practiced in religion such as acceptance of Christ as the path to eternal life.

The second level of moral reasoning is based on conventional morality. The phase is divided into a good boy or girl, and law and order, which are stages three and four of the six stages of reasoning (Pinker, 2004). Conventionally when one is looking to place another individual or authority, the decisions made based on maintenance of relationships that would be helpful in the development of religion and morality. Law and order in society revolves around the ideal of providing individuals with guidelines and rules, which is the purpose of society, which encompass the rules that society should follow, which might not necessarily be a reflection of society but morality.

The third level of reasoning is based on post conventional morality, which encompasses social contract and universal ethical principle (Pinker, 2004). The ideas of the social contract are based on the foundation of agreements that guide people in appropriate behavior. The reasoning and moral development is based on how other people and authorities implement mechanisms to analyze and evaluate the obedience and adherence of people to the rules and guidelines to create a general order on the life lived by the society. The sixth stage of the third level incorporates the inclusion of principles and extracts in humanity that consider the essence of humanity.

The elements of faith, social, cultural, and physical shortcomings contribute to the founding of different religious beliefs that lead to the development of cults and other ideologies of faith. The elements of persecution, wars, prophesy and misogynists is important to the reasoning and morality of people. Various contributions from reasoning and morality are essential in building of relationships between persons regardless of the grouping or beliefs shared. The faith and spirituality of the community and society is based on the thoughts and psychological perspective to various teachings and information included in the religious practices.

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