1. Children and adolescents are the most vulnerable members any society, poverty and inequality cause them disproportionate damage. Adequate attention must be attention and develop specialized programs not only for the poor and socially marginalized children living in the slums, but also for children living and working on the street, as well as for the children – victims trafficking and child labor. (Lecture Notes “Institutions in crisis.”)
Giving priority to issues of equality, priority should be given to the most disadvantaged children, is depending on where they live. Rights of the child can be realized and protected only when the municipal and national governments, donors and international organizations go beyond the average data of the development and will be engaged directly the problems of poverty and inequalities suffered by many urban children around the world. Poverty is one of the most important factors affecting the readiness of the child or school. Regardless of whether we are talking about families, communities or countries lack of resources undermines the ability of children to ensure proper and provide them with the necessary facilities. The results of a huge number of Studies show that family poverty has a negative impact on health, intellectual ability, academic performance and behavior of children. For example, implemented a project in Jamaica “Profiles” revealed difficulties faced by poor families in an attempt to create an enabling environment for their children. However, we should avoid excessive simplistic conclusions about the relationship between poverty and people’s ability to help children in their development. Socio-economic factors are key impact, but the overall picture is more complex.
2. Collective behavior can be expressed in a great variety of forms. For a deeper understanding of the impact that could have on the collective behavior of a person’s life, a closer look at some of the manifestations of collective behavior. (Lecture notes “Overview”)
Rumors – it is difficult to verify the information relatively quickly transferred people to each other. Usually we think that the rumors contain false information, and in many cases this is true. However, the rumors may be true, or at least contain a grain of truth. Some forms of group behavior can not be called organized in terms of existing rules. This is particularly true of collective behavior – thinking, feeling and acting, emerging from a large number of people, which is relatively spontaneous and unorganized. Fashion – Like it or preferences, which are stored for a short time and are widely distributed in the community. Fashion is reflected in phenomena such as clothing styles, design cars, the architecture of the home. For example, a formal suit, which was all the rage five years ago, now looks out of place. The car, which only three years ago was considered elegant and stylish, now seems old-fashioned and even a little strange. A magnificent mansion like lavishly decorated cakes, and not so long ago seemed prestigious, do not satisfy the tastes of many potential buyers. Hobbies – Like it or preferences, which are stored for a short time, and are spreading only a certain part of society. Indeed, most of the people is adverse to such hobbies. Hobbies are often observed in the field of entertainment, new games, popular tunes, dance steps, methods of treatment, the silver screen idols and slang. Most receptive to new hobbies are teenagers. The fact that the representation of teenage self is still blurry unarticulated and unstable, so a teenager is often at odds with himself and with others. Mass hysteria associated with the proliferation of behaviors characterized conveys the feeling of anxiety. For example, a medieval witch-hunt was based on the belief that many of the social ills were caused by any witches. Similarly, some of the “epidemic” of the “syndrome of the conveyor line” – the mass psychogenic illness – have evolved as a result of extending the symptoms of hysteria. Panic – the irrational and uncontrollable collective actions of people caused the immediate availability of a terrible threat. For example, people tend to run away from a disaster – fire or flood. Panic has a collective dimension, because social interaction increases the feeling of fear. The crowd – a temporary, relatively unorganized collection of people who are in close physical contact with each other, one of the most well known and sometimes the most spectacular forms of collective behavior. Since the concept of crowd covers a wide range of behaviors, sociologist Herbert Blumer distinguishes four main types of crowd behavior.
3. U.S. prison industry is based both on the direct use of private capital labor prisoners (its “lease” or direct operation of private prisons), and indirectly. Under other circumstances meant that the prison authorities carry out the organization of production and the prisoners manufactured products supplied under contract by private companies. The price of this product is usually much lower than the market. Determine the extent of indirect use of prison labor by private companies in the USA is difficult. Here you can a lot of abuse on the basis of the administration of state collusion in prison and a private company. This kind of business is usually attributed to the “shadow.”
According to the American press, on the basis of private prisons began to be formed, “the prison-industrial complex.” He became prominent in the production of many products in the U.S.. Today, the U.S. prison industry produces 100% of all military helmets, uniforms belts and sword belts, vests, ID cards, shirts, pants, tents, backpacks and flasks for the army of the country. In addition to military equipment and uniforms prison produces 98% of the market installation tools, 46% of bulletproof vests, 36% of home appliances, 30% of headphones, microphones, megaphones, and 21% of office furniture, aircraft and medical equipment, and more. (Lecture Notes “Social change and social action.”). However, even if the prison – is the state, the use of prison labor authorities profitable. In state prisons for prison labor rates higher than in private. Inmates receive 2 – $ 2.5 per hour (excluding overtime). However, state prisons are actually located on the “self-financing”: half earnings prisoners they climbs to pay “rent” the camera and power supply. So talk about that state prison in the United States “burden” the country’s budget, simply to justify their transfer to private hands.
7. An issue of social insurance has become one of the important today, as the choice of health insurance after social reforms to be made in the near term. If this does not happen, many of the recipients of federal health programs could lose some services. Nevertheless, many people need these services. (Lecture notes “Inequalities”). To understand how this happens, let us look at the statistics and the economic content of the functioning of the market for medical services. Health care costs are increasing rapidly, what is a serious problem. ( Jerome H. Skolnick and Elliott Currie).
But the American system of health care organization has a number of drawbacks. High rates of growth of health care costs are often not kept pace with the growth and the level of quality of care. This leads to the fact that the world’s largest health expenditure resulting health outcomes the United States lags behind other developed countries, which indicates the low efficiency of health care in the U.S.. In addition, the cost of medical services is quite high share of administrative costs (in some cases up to 20%). Healthcare workers’ pay is done on a “fee for service”, so that the patients received unnecessary medical procedures and medicines. Significant discrepancy in rates of the same health care services in different states, sometimes this value differs by 10-15 times. The big drawback is also a very complex system of health insurance.
8. Arguing about the paradoxes of social cognition, we note that the science of society emerged after almost all the other sciences, though, it would seem, to grasp the nature of social order for people not as important as know the laws of the transformation of energy and information transfer. Moreover, it appears that the technology of production of sociological knowledge makes researchers “myopic” micro-analytics or “far-sighted” experts macro process (with all its limitations), not to mention that we deliberately ignore certain scientific “blindness” in matters, which, apparently, are of paramount importance to sociology. What is life? * What is a man? ** What is society? *** The answers from the scientific point of view, very, very foggy. Explaining nature of the reality in which we live, the social scientists are quite certain concepts, “system”, ” organization “,” structure “,” element “,” function “,” process “,” weight “, etc., each time adding a special definition of” social “(or” public “). But this specification is just confusing. Either we consider the system as a system, and then its “social” quality is a minor nuisance, causing some variations, or “social” is a priority, and then the system will not be considered and does not act as a system. Therefore, the development of “social physics” is no less dramatic than “just” a fundamental physics. (Lecture notes “Overview”)
In this sense, society is not the product of man, and the product of its production, that is, culture. Like any artifact, the society is a rather fragile creature, as its existence and success of non-stop due to the cultivation of (special artificial support). Recent history shows that it is enough to destroy the city, burned the library or disable custom and use of the national language, to bring society into a state of decline, degradation or qualitative transformation of its main features. Researching problems (for example problems mentioned by Skolnick and Currie) plays a noticeable role in developing sociological imagination because science often supposes making assumptions and looking for new solutiona. Conversely, I believe that developing education, science and cultural creativity – means, in practice, to achieve more perfect social and economic prosperity.
Values that are essential to many people, may be destroyed or revived, supported or ignored by others. People are afraid and deify all highly significant and at the same time strange, but simply unknown (and therefore unpredictable) seek to avoid or eliminate it as a potential danger. Therefore, the mixing and the dialogue of cultures in modern society, characteristic of the post-modern stage of social development of the bilingual (possession of different languages) help reduce collective aggression and eliminate the struggle for survival of human “species” to a new level.
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