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April 17, 2013

Sociology

Question4
Education is viewed as a cure for all life challenges. This is an exaggerated contention in terms of the roles of schools in the economy. Inadvertently, it contradicts two major issues. Firstly, it determines how American companies can increase productivity to enhance their capacity to compete in the entire world. Secondly, it touches on how the fruits of American productivity relate to the rising cases of inequality. Although education seems practically helpful in the first aspect, it is still not an easy thing to handle. Education deficits seem to have little in terms of changes associated with wage distribution (Schools as Scapegoats I upload). Fortunately, many decades down the line education as the cure to all remains an argument overwhelmed by conflicting evidence. This necessitates the reason to face the varied challenges clearly and encourage competitiveness and connection between the growth of productivity and pay. The modern school obsession is the outstanding cause and the economic problems cure as stated in Ronald Reagan’s report in the year 1983. The increased shares in the market in relation to Japanese automobiles, Korean steel together with German machine tools, depicted superior workers’ education in those countries. The main problem is that the educational societal foundations are being interfered with by the increasing tide of mediocrity, which threatens the future of many nations ((Schools as Scapegoats I upload).
In addition, a separate report highlighted that development of skills remains the only policy that can shape the economy. It stated that inadequate skills achieved in flawed schools lead to industrial productivity to become slow and results in permanent low wages for the majority of Americans without radical reforms. Most mainstream economists, comprising of conservatives and liberals, believe that income equality and rising wages are a result of skill-biased innovation change acceleration.

Question5
Violent criminal acts are part of the accepted way of life in America with growth of the system to deal with the situation. The huge and the constant expansion of the penalty system seems a normal and foreseeable element in the modern life. The past century has seen a revolution in the justice system with transformation unparalleled in the country’s individual history or industrial democracy. The year 1971 saw limited inmates in federal and state prisons at the end of the year 1996 with a total of 1.2 million. The population in prison has increased rapidly in the past twenty years. The impact of the explosion in other communities is currently familiar because of Washington Sentencing Project (Cole, 530). The present California has seen the number of black men increase four times in state prisons than those in universities or colleges. Nationally, many black men are found in federal prisons in comparison to all races in the past twenty years.

Question6
Childcare costs are rising. Low wage is one of the factors that keep various low-income mothers on public assistance. Some of them take advantage of subsidies given by the government to take care of their children. The funds allow them to work hard and not spend their income in day care centers. Different women can start to work when their children reach school-going age. On the other hand, single mothers with family members can leave their children at home and avoid the costs of high costs of childcare. Other women trade childcare obligations with others facing similar situations. Single women do not often afford health insurance, affordable housing with limited child support from the children’s fathers. The system remains totally stacked in terms of single working mothers. In America, the number kids in families associated with single-mother families have increased dramatically in the past decade (Cole 550). This has raised substantial concern among various policymakers together with the public. Many researchers have acknowledged single-parent families rise as a main factor that results in the long-term rise poverty cases in America.

Question 7
Global competition necessitates all students who graduate from high school to get prepared for academic college and technical training that requires cognitive ability. This means that Americans can compete with Asians fairly by becoming creative than them. Indian engineers are known to make a lot of money yearly against an American engineer with similar qualifications(Cole, 520). For that reason, Americans can compete with the Indian economy if their engineers are smarter compared to them. In spite of how a school is viewed, American engineers cannot be smart compared to the rest of the world. On the other hand, the fact remains that education holds vital individual and national economic welfare than at any time in the country’s history (lecture notes I upload). The administration faults workers’ education on the income of the middle-class that stagnated under the watch of Bush. Treasury Secretary called Henry Paulson insists that in most cases market forces tend to offer great rewards in relation to required skills associated with growth areas. This explains the reason workers with limited education and few skills enjoy fewer rewards and have restricted chances to advance. The former federal chairman called Alan Greenspan often blamed schools for the discrepancy. They are unable to maintain the average level of skill level in the workforce to meet the requisite increases of advanced technology. The rising workforce skills make American companies and competitive as better skills remain inconsequential, and not the sole productivity growth source.

Question 8
Honesty among capital markets, fiscal policy, corporation’s accountability, currency management and investment in infrastructure remains the fair play associated with the trading system. The process also tends to influence the American economy to reap gains made by American ingenuity together with diligence. The sole obsession associated with schools tend to repel political interest from policy malfunction and other realms. On the other hand, the situation can not be determined by mechanisms that creates national productivity and distribution. The decision is implemented by policies that schools do not influence such as trade, tax, monetary, labor policies on the market (Lecture notes upload 1) The situation modifies the forces the market affects the amount of market forces that impacts on wages given to workers. The continuing upgrade of education as well as skills are vital for sustaining growth in relation to ethnic gaps and historic race. The situation does not guarantee financial success with no policies to reconnect pay devoid of productivity growth. Most of Americans who are middle class living standards has been threatened not because of shortage of competitive skills, but the richest seize the productivity fruits. This results in a denial of fair shares among the working, middle-class, and those who graduate from American schools and created additional wealth in the nation (Moore and Jerome,200)The past few decades the college wages of graduates have seen a significant increase as college graduates have commandeered inconsistent shares, with nothing left for scientists, teachers, and engineers with high skill levels. It is evident that no school reform can unwrap policies that redirect creation of wealth by skilled workers to executive bonuses.

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